• Melisa Altınsoy

The Effects of Bioengineering and Electronics on Humanity

Technological innovations affect the world dramatically. These innovations contribute to developing engineering on biology, therefore bioengineering emerges which is most significant field of science in 21th century. Bioengineering is the application of biological techniques to create modified versions of organism. Nowadays, genetical transformation for treatment was achieved successfully by bioengineers. It can be claimed that, in next generation, almost all insufficiencies like paralysis, hereditary diseases, organ failure will be eliminated thanks to multidisciplinary engineering fields with bioengineering. On the other hand, this technological enhancements will affects society because of interruption of the human being.

Bioelectronics microchips that is a microelectronic circuit which is integrated into human epidermal tissue has significant electronic effect on human.

The outstanding effects of bioengineering which shapes the future of technology is the electronic area. To start with, bioelectronics microchips that is a microelectronic circuit which is integrated into human epidermal tissue is the most significant electronic effect on human. Most importantly, bioelectronics microchips are used for cancer detection that is one of the world’s most important health problem. As Zhang (2012) stated, because of the importance of early diagnostics for cancer treatment, different technologies have been improved about geomics and proteomics for producing the biosensors which can be detected effective and earlier in last decade. Unfortunately, all of the detection methods had several issues like lack of sensivity, complexity of labeling method which was used flourescent dyeing, and instrumantation problem. Recently, technological enhancements make possible that increase sensitivity level of biosensors and combine with microchips. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is the biosensor which is developed these technological enhancements (p. 382). In addition, FPI biosensor has surface that can catch biomolecules related cancer and also the surface is larger in comparison to old biomarkers. Microelectonic device inside the FPI transforms the biomolecule matching information to signal. These signals can be process and analysis on computer owing to electronic material inside to biosensor (p.384). Taking all these facts into consideration, nowadays, many fatal diseases, including cancer are diagnosed earlier based on ten years ago owing to electronic enhancement on bioengineering. It is possible to claim that microelectronic sensors used in laboratory or hospital will spread and people will use these devices for making real time measurements, and monitoring health report from smart phones any time in next decade. In addition, these microchips are used to measure and analyze sleeping values because of understanding sleeping architecture. According to Vijayan (2014), epidermal electronic system which is kind of wearable electronic sensor is advantageous option for sleep monitoring because of the fact that it does not affect sleep during registration. EES is suitable human skin and it can be used for recording human electrophysiological changing. EES material structure provides adhere to skin like tattoo. At the beginning, EES technology which is wearable devices all day without disturbing and capable of measuring has been found by Dr. Calemon and his team. In consequence of sleep monitoring needs, advantages of EES are most important and useful (pp. 12–13). In the light of all this knowledge, in developing world, people have so much psychological issues which affect sleeping. Hence, understanding sleeping disorders has significant importance for building mental strength. Because of this, owing to enhanced electronic technologies, scientist have achieved to measure brain wave behaviors and other changes on human body with epidermal electronic sensors, without interrupting sleep, the result of this, it has been resolved sleeping problems. Thus, it is obvious that improving sleep quality of the human provides the reduction of psychological disorders on human. As a result, it can be concluded that, bioelectronics microchip developments have affected human beings in several area including cancer detection and sleeping measurements.

Nowadays, it can be claimed that brain waves will be used for controlling and communicating all electronic devices besides body control.

Besides, brain computer interface provides body control with brain waves for paralyzed people. Wolpaw (2004) stated that Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) is a significant electronic and communication advancement. BCIs provides transforming brain wave signals to meaningful data for computer. Thus, it is possible to control machines or artificial organs with neural system signals with the aid of BCIs transformation. For this transformation, brain activities are detected over scalp which is entitled as noninvasive BCIs. This technique gives successful result for controlling multidimensional movements on monkeys, but it causes many health-threatening results including inflammation in brain. Moreover, brain waves can be measured within brain via electrodes, this method is entitled as invasive BCIs. Through this scientific work, it is performed complex body motion by invasive method in experiments on human. As a result, the research succeed to give mobility to paralyzed people owing to this technological revolution. Clearly, paralyzed people will be able to move themselves through brain computer interfaces, therefore people with disabilities can live without any obstacles. In light of all these facts, it can be claimed that brain waves will be used for controlling and communicating all electronic devices besides body control. Consequently, brain computer interfaces technology has crucial effects on human life. Lastly, researches about super intelligence were progressed with brain computer interface, thereby it is possible to make estimation about future human. According to Pearce (2012), as a result of easy access to genetic information data, biohacking which is application of information technology for hacking biological systems, mostly human body, will be improve for customizing heredity for the purpose of cognitive development of human. The combination of the genetic and computer science improves human biology and leads to create post human by adding advanced genes.

Referring to them all, through computer and telecommunication sciences and stem-cell technologies, new step for biohackers will come up with executive mind, in other words superintelligence.

Transhuman intelligence will be increased with neurochips, brain-computer interfaces and molecular biology, thus human emotions can be improved to avoid bad feelings (p. 201). Considering the information above, it can be said that brain computer interfaces and other electronic enhancements make it possible to change human nature in a good or bad way, isn’t it? Moreover, it is possible to claim that evolution of human will accelerate exponentially compared to past.

To sum up, curiosity of the unknown leads to realize to dream of science-fiction. Future will be show what will be used for these extraordinary developments. In the light of all of them, it is possible to claim that lost of utopias and dystopias about the world will be waiting for us sooner than we expected.

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Pearce, D. (2012), The biointelligence explosion. In A. H. Eden, J. H. Moor, J. H. Soraker, E. Steinhart (Ed.), Singularity hypotheses (pp. 199–339). [DX Reader Version] doi:10.1007/978–3–642–32560–1

Vijayan, V. (2014). Development of probabilistic algorithms for unobtrusive sleep monitoring using epidermal electronic system — A pilot study. Unpublished master thesis, University of California, San Diego, ABD. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1545896384?pq-origsite=summon

Wolpaw, J. R., McFarland, D. J., & Bizzi, E. (2004). Control of a two-dimensional movement signal by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(51), 17849–17854. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403504101

Zhang, T., He, Y., Wei, J., & Que, L. (2012). Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics Journal, 38(1), 382–388. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.029

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